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Table 1 Technical, Moral and Systems Perspective at different Stages of Economic Activity

From: Economies of scope: context of agriculture, small family farmers and sustainability

Perspective Primary Economic Activity Secondary Economic Activity Tertiary Economic Activity
Technical Perspective: Approach & Efficiency Criterion • Economies of Scope and  Production Efficiency • Economies of Scale and  Processing Efficiency • Economies of Scale and  Operational Efficiency
Moral Perspective: Primary Stakeholders • Smallholder Farmers
• Rural Youth
• Rural Resource Poor
• Industrialists
• Investors in Manufacturing
• Technical professionals
• Banks & Financiers
• Large Wholesalers, Distributors & Retailers
• MBAs/Professionals
• Neo classical Economists
Systems Perspective: Institutional Architecture & their relationship • Interconnections
• Interdependence
• Higher frequency of interactions
• Bio-diverse and networked relationship
• Greater depth of relationships that not only facilitate efficiency but sustainability
• Relationships are more linear as in a chain
• Relationships are contractual in nature
• Institutional architecture is a top-down design
• Chain, contractual, arms- length relationship is preoccupied with achieving efficiency
• Relationships are more linear in design
• Relationships are contractual with institutional buyers and need to be contractual as well as personal with retail buyers.
• Institutional architecture is a top-down design