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Table 4 Main social science theories

From: Western and/or universal social sciences?

Closed theories
1. Positivism (Comte)
2. Empirism (Durkheim)
3. Circulation of elites (Pareto)
4. Hermeneutics (Weber)
5. Functional-structural (Parsons)
6. Systems theory (Luhmann)
7. Reflexive modernisation (Beck)
Open theories
1. Critique of political economy (Marx)
2. Critical Rationalism (Popper)
3. Life-world (Lefebvre, Habermas)
4. Social/symbolic capital (Bourdieu)